咖啡中的綠原酸

最近有一則新聞:每天喝一杯咖啡可降低肝硬化死亡風險,在這篇文章中,指出這樣的結果可能來自於咖啡中的綠原酸更提到綠原酸濃度最高的是美式咖啡,因為咖啡豆和熱水接觸的時間最長,其次是義式咖啡,排名第三的是虹吸咖啡,墊底的是冰滴咖啡。

除了咖啡以外,綠原酸(Chlorogenic acid)還存在哪裡呢?答案就是常見的金銀花杜仲葉中。

延伸閱讀:咖啡保肝護腎vs中藥杜仲

下一篇咖啡降低大腸癌風險 

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咖啡降低大腸癌風險

繼之前喝咖啡可以降低肝癌風險以後,又有新聞討論關於喝咖啡可以講低大腸癌風險,感覺上好像喝咖啡真是無敵了咧….這到底是怎麼回事呢?

在這一篇號稱咖啡可以降低大腸癌風險的醫學報告中,一開頭就告訴我們,一天一到兩杯的咖啡可能降低大腸癌風險。這項研究主要是在以色列收集近八千五百人參加,其中包含五千名已經罹患大腸癌患者與三千五百名健康民眾。

Drinking just one to two cups of coffee a day may reduce the risk of colon cancer, a new study suggests.

Researchers examined coffee consumption among nearly 8,500 people in Israel, including about 5,000 who had colorectal cancerand 3,500 who did not have cancer. On average, the people in the study drank just less than two cups of coffee per day.

 

相對於那些每天喝不到一杯咖啡的人,那些每天喝一兩杯咖啡的人在罹患大腸癌的機率可以低22%。如果對比每天喝到兩杯半咖啡的人,可以低到44%。(難道那個便利商店推出第二杯半價居然是配合醫學報告的嗎?)如果一天喝到兩杯半以上,甚至可以降低機率到59%以上。(政府應該出面讓便利商店,第三杯咖啡免費才對)

Compared with the risk for people who drank less than one cup of coffee per day, the odds of developing colorectal cancer were 22 percent lower for people who drank one to two cups a day, 44 percent lower for those who drank two to two-and-a-half cups a day and 59 percent lower for those who drank more than two-and-a-half cups per day.

為何會有這樣的結果,推測是喝咖啡可以讓腸胃中的食物或者有毒物質快速通過結腸,讓組織接觸致癌物的時間縮短,自然罹癌機率會縮短。另外也可以因為咖啡影響腸道中的微生物而產生了變化,或者咖啡本身的物質引起,目前不得而知。

It’s been hypothesized that drinking coffee may lower colorectal-cancer risk by speeding up the passage of substances through the colon, meaning the tissue has less time to be exposed to potential cancer-causing agents. It’s also possible that drinking coffee affects the composition of microbes in the gut, or that compounds in coffee have cancer-preventing properties.

這篇報告是發表在美國癌症年會,不知道這種報告可信度多少?

延伸閱讀:大腸癌的治療腸癌患者暴增大腸水療的謬誤

下一篇肥胖會得癌症

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肥胖會得癌症?

看到肥胖會得癌症這個標題,大家一定嚇一跳吧,我也是看到這篇新聞:女重度肥胖,手術防子宮內膜癌。新聞提到美國加州大學聖地牙哥分校團隊發表於《婦科腫瘤學》的研究指出,BMI值大於40的女性,罹患子宮內膜癌的比例是BMI值25女性的8倍;研究人員分析逾740萬名女性的就醫紀錄後發現,若接受「胃繞道」、「袖狀胃切除」、「胃束帶」等減重手術,可降低罹患子宮內膜癌比例逾7成,若患者在手術後能控制飲食及保持運動習慣,罹癌風險更可減少達81%

但是千萬不要隨便相信新聞標題,不然就會犯了某位醫師犯的錯喲。附註:感冒到底應不應該吃藥

我們附上該篇英文報告,看來是真有這麼回事。

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center report that bariatric surgery resulting in dramatic weight loss in formerly severely obese women reduces the risk of endometrial (uterine) cancer by 71 percent and as much as 81 percent if normal weight is maintained after surgery.

Published in the April issue of Gynecologic Oncology, the official publication of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, the findings indicate obesity may be a modifiable risk factor for endometrial cancer, and bariatric surgery a viable option for eligible patients. They are based on a retrospective cohort study of 7,431,858 patients in the University HealthSystem Consortium database, which contains information from contributing academic medical centers in the United States and affiliated hospitals. Of this total, 103,797 patients had a history of bariatric surgery and 44,345 had a diagnosis of uterine malignancy.

Obesity is a widespread public health problem in the United States, with an estimated two-thirds of the U.S. adult population considered to be overweight or obese. The condition is strongly linked to a host of health risks, among them heart disease, diabetes and cancer, in particular endometrial cancer.

“Estimating from various studies that looked at increasing BMI and endometrial cancer risk, a woman with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 40 would have approximately eight times greater risk of endometrial cancer than someone with a BMI of 25,” said first author Kristy Ward, MD, the senior gynecologic oncology fellow in the Department of Reproductive Medicine at UC San Diego School of Medicine. “This risk likely continues to go up as BMI goes up.”

Bariatric surgery is often the last resort for obese patients after all other non-surgical weight loss efforts have failed. To qualify, patients must be an acceptable surgical risk and be defined as either severely obese with a BMI of 40 or greater or have a BMI of 35 or greater with at least one related condition: diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity-related cardiomyopathy or heart muscle disease or severe joint disease.

Typically, bariatric surgery involves reducing the size of the stomach using a constrictive gastric band, removing a portion of the stomach or resecting and re-routing the small intestines to a small stomach pouch. In all cases, the surgery must be followed by lifestyle changes to ensure long-term weight loss success.

A number of biological mechanisms link obesity to endometrial cancer. Excessive adipose or fat tissue, for example, raises circulating levels of estrogen, which is associated with tumor creation and metastasis. Obesity also causes chronic inflammation, boosting insulin resistance and increased estrogen levels.

“The majority of endometrial cancers are estrogen-driven,” said Ward. “In a normal menstruating woman, two hormones control the endometrium (inner lining of the uterus). Estrogen builds up the endometrium and progesterone stabilizes it. A woman with excess adipose tissue has an increased level of estrogen because the fat tissue converts steroid hormones into a form of estrogen.

“So there is too much estrogen, causing the endometrium to build up, but not enough progesterone to stabilize it. The endometrium continues to grow and can undergo changes into abnormal tissue, leading to cancer.”

Bariatric surgery has been shown to reduce the impact of these factors: hormone levels become normal; inflammation decreases; insulin resistance drops; weight loss allows for increased physical activity and improved overall health.

“The obesity epidemic is a complicated problem,” she said. “Further work is needed to define the role of bariatric surgery in cancer care and prevention, but we know that women with endometrial cancer are more likely to die of cardiovascular causes than they are of endometrial cancer.  It’s clear that patients who are overweight and obese should be counseled about weight loss, and referral to a bariatric program should be considered in patients who meet criteria.”

Co-authors include Angelica M. Roncancio, University of Texas School of Public Health; Nina R. Shah, Mitzie-Ann Davis, Cheryl C. Saenz, Michael T. McHale and Steven C. Plaxe, all of UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center.

台南高雄地區,想要減肥的朋友,可以上網搜尋林黑潮診所

下一篇咖啡對於降低肝癌的報告

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